Was man über Stretching wissen sollte…?!

Was man über Stretching wissen sollte…?!

Stretching Was ist das?

Stretching ist „ein Verhalten, das eine Person ausführt, um ihr Bewegungsausmaß wiederzuerlangen, zu erhöhen oder zu erhalten 1

 

Stretching-Ist es notwendig?

Stretching ist nicht zwingend notwendig, um ein „normales zu erhalten. Vielmehr reichen die Anforderungen des Alltags aus, um die Beweglichkeit auf einem bestimmten Niveau zu halten 1
Stretching steigert kurzfristig 24 28 die Beweglichkeit. Eine langfristige 29 33 Steigerung der Beweglichkeit erfolgt nach einen einem regelmäßigen Training nach einigen Wochen.

Neben dem Stretching gibt es auch andere Möglichkeiten das Bewegungsausmaß zu steigern. Krafttraining 2 16 , Massage (kurzzeitig) 17 21, Ausdauertraining 6,34,35 und Wärme kurzzeitg 22,23 steigern das Bewegungsausmaß eines Gelenks.

 

Stretching-Wie funktioniert es?

In der Literatur werden zwei Wirkmechanismen von Stretching diskutiert:

Dehn Toleranz (sensorische Theorie 36,38 41 , 44

Strukturelle Veränderung der Muskel Sehnen Einheit (Mechanische Theorie 41
43 , 36

Momentan wird von der sensorischen Theorie ausgegangen 36 , d.h. Stretching führt zu einer Zunahme der Dehntoleranz auf neurophysiologischer Ebene. Die Evidenzlage ist jedoch noch sehr heterogen , da einige Studien eine Veränderung der Muskel Sehnen Einheit zeigen 37 . Es könnte sein, dass Struktureffekte erst nach länger Dauer oder größeren Stimuli erfolgen 3 6

 

Stretching-Welche Art ist am effektivsten?

Momentan lässt sich keine eindeutige Rangfolge der Effektivität der verschiedenen Dehnungsarten (statisch, dynamisch, „PNF“) bezüglich einer Erweiterung des Bewegungsausmaßes festlegen 45 49

 

Stretching und…

 

…Muskelkater

 

Stretching hilft nicht dabei, einen Muskelkater vorzubeugen oder zu verhindern 50

…Sportliche Leistung

Statisches Dehnen wurde in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten als ungünstig für nachfolgende die Leistung bei Kraftsportarten angesehen und sollte demzufolge möglichst nicht vor dem Training durchgeführt werden. 51 52 Neuere Forschung zeigt jedoch, dass es bei der Integration von Stretching in ein umfassendes Aufwärmprogramm lediglich bei längeren Haltedauern (>60s) zu trivialen
Leistungseinbußen kommt. 51 Des Weiteren gibt es Evidenz die daraufhin deutet, dass die Inklusion von Stretching in ein Warm up zu einem geringeren Risiko von Muskelsehnenverletzungen führt. 51

…Kraftleistung

Chronische Effekte von statischem Stretching auf Kraft, Schnellkraft und Explosivkraft sind kaum untersucht. Es zeigen sich bislang keine Nachteile, jedoch auch nur geringe Vorteile 28 Die chronischen Effekte von statischem Dehnen auf die Ausdauerleistung sind uneindeutig 28,53

 

…Verletzungen

Stretching kann die gesamte Sport Verletzungsrate nicht beeinflussen . 54 56 Jedoch existieren Hinweise, dass Stretching sich unter Umständen positiv auf akute Muskelverletzungen auswirkt 54 56 , 45,51

 

…Kontrakturen

Stretching hat keine klinisch bedeutsamen Effekt auf das verfügbare Bewegungsausmaß bei Menschen mit neurologisch oder nicht neurologisch bedingten Kontrakturen 57

 

…Schmerz

Es gibt einige Studien, die eine Wirkung von Stretching auf chronische Schmerzen nahelegen: z.B. für p atellofemorales Schmerzsyndrom 59,60 , unspezifische chronische Rückenschmerzen 61 , Morbus Bechterew 62 , Muskelschmerzen durch Computerarbeit 63 , Tennisellbogen 64 . Übersichtsarbeiten zeigen jedoch kaum oder keine Effekte bei Nackenschmerzen 66 , Fibromyalgie 65 oder bei Kontrakturen 57 .

 

…Haltung

Der Einfluss von Stretching auf die Körperhaltung ist kaum untersucht. Die Dehnung der Hamstrings 67 70 und des Pectoralis Minor 71 scheinen keinen Einfluss auf die Haltung zu haben.

…Hypertrophie

Passives Stretching mit niedriger Intensität scheint keinen Nutzen für eine Veränderung von Muskelmasse oder Muskelarchitektur zu haben. Jedoch gibt es eingeschränkte Evidenz, dass Stretching mit einem gewissen Grad an Intensität (unter Belastung oder zwischen den Sätzen) zu mehr Hypertrophie führen könnte. 72

…Kardiovaskuläre Effekte

Stretching scheint sowohl akute als auch langfristige Effekte auf einige Parameter der vaskulären Funktion zu haben 73 , 74

 

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